Complete Web3.0 and Solidity Development Roadmap 2021

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Learning Web3.0 and blockchain development today is like buying a Bitcoin at $10 yesterday.

Entering the Blockchain industry where the average programmer is paid around $140k/year, is probably the best investment you can make as a developer.

Unfortunately, the web has a scarcity of good resources and finding a good blockchain development roadmap might rapidly become tedious.

I’ve taken the time to gather the best online videos, courses, and websites and put together the best web3.0 and Solidity development roadmap.

From complete zero programming knowledge to Solidity and Blockchain expert, that’s why we’ll start with the fundamentals of Computer Science.


1. Before Web3.0 and Blockchain: Fundamentals of Computer Science

A Skyscraper needs solid foundations to not collapse.

Screen with some code on it, header of web3.0 and solidity development roadmap

Blockchain development it’s a tough subject, I won’t lie. Before digging deeper into nodes and blocks and start your roadmap, better learn the fundamentals of computer science:

The famous CS50 — fundamentals for Computer Science — free course issued by Harvard itself will teach you all you need to know to understand the basics of computers and data handling.

Once you’ll have some CS understanding, it’s time to learn how the Blockchain works, why it’s useful, and its limitations.


2. Learn The Fundamentals Of Blockchain

Blockchain wrote on a white background.

As a Web3.0 developer, you need to understand what the Blockchain is, how it works and why it might disrupt the way we exchange goods and make payments.
Blockchain technology is no more related only to crypto coins but it has become a truly distributed cloud computing system capable of running full Backends to power cutting edge Decentralized Applications (DApps).

Learn the fundamentals of the Blockchain on Coursera for Free with Blockchain 101.


3. What is a Decentralized Application?

Decentralized application showing Ethereum wallet

When you’ll have learned about the blockchain, nodes, consensus, and all the main components of this technology, you’ll start to wonder:

“What kind of applications can I develop using the blockchain?”

The applications built on top of Blockchain are called Decentralized applications, or DApps, and have:

  • A standard Front-end built using JavaScript or frameworks/libraries like React, Vue, Svelte, and so on.
  • A Solidity/Solana/Rust backend, built on top of the blockchain.

Learn what is a Decentralized Application:

Check DApp Radar to see real-world examples of Defi (Decentralized Finance) and other Blockchain-based applications

To understand how the front-end and the backend of a DApp work together: communicating and exchanging data, you need to learn Front-end development and the basic principles of standard backend development, APIs, and patterns.


4. Learn Front End Development in 2021

Javascript front-end books

As said Decentralized Applications have a standard vanilla JavaScript or JavaScript Framework Front-end, that’s why before delving into developing your first DApp, it’s key to learn the basics of Front-end development and how the web works.

Learn HTML, CSS, HTTP, JavaScript, pick a framework and start building static websites.

The Complete 2021 Front-end development Roadmap with 15+ Free resources to kickstart your journey and start monetizing your skills.



5. Should I Learn Backend Development to Become a Web3 Developer?

Yes and now.

backend developer drinking coffee in front of a laptop

Decentralized Applications backends vastly differ from “standard” applications backends, starting from the fact that Blockchain technology is used as the main source of decentralized data storage, whereas standard backends usually use Databases or Object Storages.

The majority of technical principles remain the same, though, and it’s not suggested to jump straight into blockchain and web3.0 development without a strong foundation of the main principle of standard web development

5.1 Learn Backend Development in 2021

Learning backend development it’s a very rewarding process: connecting DB, creating your own REST API and building the business logics that will power your tools, is a great step to take.

I’ve recently published The ultimate roadmap to backend development updated to 2021. You might want to give it a read!

Learn: Node, Express, DBs, HTTP, how to develop APIs, and start deploying cutting-edge applications.

2021 Roadmap to Backend Development with Free Resources.


6. Web3.0 and Solidity Development roadmap: learn What is Ethereum and How it Works

A web3.0 developer needs to understand how Ethereum works.

Illustration with ethereum Prisma logo in open hands

Ethereum is software running on a network of computers that ensures the replication and processing of small programs called Smart Contracts.

The majority of Decentralized applications, now runs on top of the Ethereum Blockchain, Smart Contracts had also been implemented by the Ethereum Consortium, then “copied” by other Blockchains.

It’s key to become an Ethereum expert for a web3.0 and Solidity developer, at least in 2021.

Learn more about Ethereum in this video with Vitalik Buterin, one of the inventors of the Ethereum Blockchain talks about this technology.

If you want to explore further what Ethereum is, I hardly suggest you go and check the documentation and original Ethereum website.


7. Software on the Blockchain: Smart Contracts

Ethereum and Smart Contracts are like Bread and butter, you need to understand both.

Screenshot of the Remix IDE showing Smart Contract written in Solidity

A Smart Contract is software stored on a blockchain-based platform, that automatically executes an agreement.

It is written in Solidity, Rust, or Vyper (Solidity but in Python flavor), and it’s the key component of any Decentralized Application, powering its business logics and allowing you to store information on the blockchain, just like you would do in a standard Database.

Learn what Smart Contracts are, in this free Course Course by the University of Virginia.


8. Learn Solidity to Develop and Deploy Smart Contracts

Solidity Logo

Of course knowing what Smart Contracts are is not enough, as a Web3.0 or Blockchain Developer, you have to know how to write your own Smart Contracts and use them to power your own Decentralized Applications. Here is when Solidity comes in help.

Solidity is a high-level, contract-oriented programming language to write smart contracts, allowing programmers to write self-executing code that powers blockchain DApps.

Unfortunately, as we were saying, the web lacks good resources to learn about Solidity and Blockchain Development.

Here are the best 2021 Solidity free courses I’ve found:


9. Learn Solidity by Creating Zombies

Cryptozombies illustration with zombie dressed as a soldier

Turns out one of the best resources to learn about Solidity is a Gamified Programming course, where you’ll learn how to develop Smart Contracts while creating a Zombie factory to start your world domination plan.

The game is divided in sections, going from complete newbie, to advanced Solidity developer. I suggest you to play it while following one of the other suggested courses, as it helps with practice.

Check out CryptoZombies, is completely Free.


10. Connect your DApp Front-end: Learn Web3.js or Ethers.js

Now that you know how to create Smart Contracts, you need a way to connect your front-end with your local or remote Solidity (or similar) backend, using anything from HTTP to Websockets.

To do so you can choose between two JavaScript Libraries:

  • Web3.js
  • Ethers.js

10.1 Learn Web3.js

Web3.js and ethereum logo on a black background

web3.js is a collection of libraries that allow you to connect with a local or remote Ethereum node using HTTPWebsockets, and other communication protocols directly from your JavaScript Based front-end.

Here’s the full web3.js crash course by DApp University.

10.2 Learn Ethers.js

Logo of ethers.js a JavaScript web3 library with cloud on blue background and twitter handle @ricmoo

Ethers.js is a lightweight JavaScript library used as an alternative to Web3.js to connect JavaScript front-end with Smart Contacts.

Learn Front-end DApp development with Ethers.js by Nader Dabit.


11. Develop your first Decentralized Application

Learning by practicing and solving problems is key, it’s literally the best way our brain has to retain information.

Start building your first DApps to reinforce your understanding of blockchain development.

Develop 5 DApps in this free course by freecodecamp.

Other DApps Project Inspirations

Finding project ideas to showcase in your blockchain developer portfolio, might not be that intuitive.

Let me share with you 6 projects ideas to practice your web3.0 knowledge.


12. Learn How to Test your Smart Contracts

Testing Your Blockchain Smart Contracts is Key.

Screen with javascript unit tests

What makes the Blockchain so special is the non-reversibility: once a Smart Contract is added, it can’t be edited or recalled, and its deployment also costs real money (GAS fees).

This is the reason why you should learn how to thoroughly test your smart contracts before deploying them.

How do I Test my Decentralized Application?

There are 4 types of testing to test your Smart Contracts:

  • Node Testing.
  • Functional Testing.
  • Performance Testing.
  • API Testing.

Learn More about testing your Decentralized Applications and Smart Contracts, in this 1hr free introduction to Blockchain Tests.


13. Learn Truffle And Ganache

Truffle Logo

Speed Up Your Development With Truffle: a development environment, testing framework, and asset pipeline for any EVM Blockchain.

It comes with:

  • Built-in smart contract compilation
  • Scriptable migration framework
  • and more.

Ganache on the other side comes included in the Truffle suite and is used to Test Ethereum Contacts. It essentially creates a simulated blockchain with accounts to test your transactions and avoid setting up useless boilerplates to kickstart your DApp development.

Start exploring Truffle in this Tutorial for beginners.

Learn Ganache from the official Documentation.


Conclusions

Learning Web3.0 and blockchain development might sound daunting at first, but everyone can do it.

Learn step-by-step using starting from the fundamentals of Computer Science, to JavaScript, from solidity to cutting edge DeFi applications.

You won’t learn Blockchain Development in 1 week, but you can do it in 1 year of full commitment.

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